It is true that in spite of low achievement, law enforcement will continue to be an important concern for the police. Order maintenance will continue to be pursued vigorously. However, the highest demands being on service tasks, proper attention to them will probably enable the police to better meet the needs of the consumers. In brief, the roots of American police can be traced to a tripartite tradition.
Embodied in the Bill of Rights is a message that the police must seek an appreciation of the higher values of law. The Peelian model borrowed by American police underscores the concerns for moral and democratic principles. Another trait of Anglo-American police tradition, the service role, signifies the need for helping attitudes and skills for service.
Trends and challenges in humanitarian civil–military coordination
It is through careful nourishment of these roots that the police in America can find their true mission. Should the police in America, as an American institution, practice such ideals? Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr. The authors add: The excellent companies all seem to have very powerful service themes that pervade the institutions. In fact, one of our most significant conclusions about the excellent companies is that, whether their basic business is metal bending, high technology, or hamburgers, they have all defined themselves as service businesses.
These may be described as ideals that excellent companies aim to achieve. These attributes are as follows: 1. Excellent companies are characterized by chaotic action rather than by orderly inaction. They are willing to try things out, to experiment. Further, such companies really are close to their customers.
Peters and Waterman observe that encouragement of the entrepreneurial spirit among their people is an important mark of excellent companies. They state: There is hardly a more pervasive theme in the excellent companies than respect for the individual. That basic belief and assumption were omnipresent. These companies give people control over their destinies; they make meaning for people. We are talking about tough-minded respect for the individual and the willingness to train him, to set reasonable and clear expectations for him, and to grant him practical autonomy to step out and contribute directly to his job.
They suggest that excellent companies are marked by the personality of a leader who lays down a set of values. In explaining the attribute, Peters and Waterman maintain that excellent organizations seem to acquire businesses they know how to run, because they never leave their base. They experiment with new products but if it results in a failure, they terminate the experiment quickly. Excellent companies are also noted for simple form and lean staff. This attribute helps them to remain flexible and to respond effectively to fast-changing conditions in the business environment.
According to the authors, the structure of the s will respond to the three prime needs revealed here: a need for efficiency around the basics; a need for regular innovation; and a need to avoid calcification by ensuing at least modest responsiveness to major threats. Although these companies are rigidly controlled, their workers are allowed autonomy, entrepreneurship, and innovation. Peters and Waterman argue that the eight basics of management excellence work because they have a sound theoretical basis.
Excellent companies are founded on a model that does not denigrate the Ideals of Excellent Companies 21 importance of values. Such companies create a broad, uplifting, shared culture, a coherent framework; thus they inspire extraordinary contributions from very large numbers of people. Ordinarily, management practice does not take into consideration that man is quite strikingly irrational, that human beings have a very high sense of ego, and that they need to have both autonomy and guidance. But the excellent companies take these foibles and limitations into account.
They have a special insight into the management of individuals. In summarizing the eight basics of management, the reader of In Search of Excellence can broadly conclude that excellent companies are action oriented. They are also people oriented organizations, close to their own workers as well as to their customers.
Challenges and Responses
They are imbued with values and ideals that are at the same time rooted in pragmatism. Compared with these management principles, what professional and moral values, ideals, and objectives do police managers stress among their employees? Not surprisingly, the working culture and value system in police departments are entirely different. The police administrators both in the United States and around the world seem to admire discipline in their officers. Discipline is stressed from the time of recruit training. Chief Matt Rodriguez, Superintendent of Police in Chicago, mentioned that he viewed police training as a process of conversion to the culture of police discipline Rodriguez A former chief of police, Mayer A.
De Roy of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, preferred his recruits to be trained in the State Police Academy because the emphasis on discipline was more pronounced than in the Municipal Training Academy Talking to police leaders in the world like Dr.
Police Mission: Challenges and Responses -
Kare Hanz Gemmer, the police president of Frankfurt , one gets the unambiguous impression that they place a great deal of importance on discipline. Police chiefs in India, too, look for an immaculate sense of discipline in their personnel Das This is the question that we will explore through the four books discussed in this chapter.
These books deal with diverse police activities and experiences in America, England, Australia, and France. There is an account of the behavior of the Police Nationale and the militarily supervised Gendarmerie Nationale of France. The police covered in the books come from different continents with different histories, cultures, and politics. The samples of the police covered by the books under review represent a fairly large slice of policing; all of them, however, portray affluent, industrial, multicultural, and democratic societies.
With this limitation, we will attempt a few generalizations on the predominant theme underlying the books included in this review: Is unflinching obedience preferable to wise, discerning judgment on the part of the police? Principally, we intend to discuss whether police organizations should stress discretion, judgment and moral sensitivity in their members more than obedience and discipline. The four books reviewed here seem to suggest that discipline and obedience without moral sensitivity can be dangerous.
It is indicated that police organizational culture tends to favor discipline over discerning judgment, and obedience over questioning on the part of the police rank and file. With strict adherence to the values of loyalty, discipline, and obedience, the police tend to carry out even questionable orders without question.
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Such police behavior results in grave miscarriages of justice. It is an account of French police degradation and dishonor brought about by the victory of bureaucratic discipline over conscientious police judgment during the German occupation. Beyond A New Era for Policing Sparrow, Moore, and Kennedy is discussed last because it shows a way out of the Ideals of Excellent Companies 23 police organizational dilemma-obedience versus judgmentdiscussed in this review. He presents some reasons for immoral acts on the part of the members of the French Police Nationale, and the French Gendarmerie Nationale who collaborated with the puppet Vichy government set up by the German authorities during the occupation years Further, Stephan points out that collaboration with the occupying German authorities was not a dishonorable behavior confined to only some members of the law enforcement establishment in France.
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It happened in other countries of the German-occupied Europe. Stephan suggests that such behavior in France or anywhere else arises because the police are taught to develop obedience to law as a great virtue in itself. The author says that the French Police Nationale and the Gendarmerie Nationale were not professionally accustomed to resort to disobedience, insubordination, or revolt even against the illegitimate government during the foreign occupation of their country.
According to Stephan, there were several other reasons for this behavior on the part of the French police. They had never worked with an illegitimate government and the puppet government set up by the German authorities presented them with an unprecedented situation. Traditionally the police in France have been organized within a militaristic and hierarchical structure and as such the members of the French law enforcement bodies were accustomed to serve their governments without question.
In fact, The dilemma presented by [these] circumstances is an ancient one. The essence of problems of obedience during the war was rooted in the fact that police officers often came to view themselves as instruments for carrying out the orders of the Vichy government: they ceased to view themselves as responsible for their own actions. Once this point was accepted by the officers 24 Chapter 2 it became possible for them to carry out the orders of their superiors. In accordance with orders from their superiors, some police personnel of France collaborated with the German forces in waging a highly effective and ruthless total war on the Resistance.
They failed to recognize that the Resistance symbolized heroic efforts of the French people directed toward ousting the enemy from their country. In the process of compliance with the orders received from their superiors, the police in France essentially became the agents of the German police.
They carried out infamous raids against Jews, which they said they hated but had no choice. The Vichy government ordered that the French intelligence service-the Service des Renseignements Genereux-maintain files on French citizens in accordance with the orders of the hated German Gestapo. Stephan cites other instances of ignominious collaboration of a proud and traditional police organization with an illegitimate order. The author of the Broken Sword concludes that a pathological sense of discipline made the police of France incapable of resisting immoral commands from the illegitimate Vichy government.
Obedience devoid of judgment was the reason for cruel and immoral police actions against the Jews, and other elements of the French population who resisted the occupation. English culture and history are different from those of France. The English police boast of their unique principle of policing by consent, local accountability, ministerial image, individual responsibility, and other hallowed and democratic precepts. Why were they no better than the police in France in resisting politically motivated orders? She records numerous complaints of the striking miners against the conservative political establishment that they accused of highhanded policing, repressive social control of a strike, and setting in motion an immoral process of political criminalization of the strikers.