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This book is useful for non-native speakers of English as well as anyone interested in English Idioms. It has wide coverage of American and Bristish English idoimatic expressions. See All Customer Reviews. This item doesn't have extra editions. ISBN Choose your shipping method in Checkout.
Costs may vary based on destination. Hardcover, Fair. Hay-on-Wye Booksellers. Hardcover, New. Hardcover, Very Good. All rights reserved. For personal use only. Some linguistic metaphors analyzed are taken from the Internet.
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The choice of this strategy is determined due to the following reason. The source-domain-oriented approach works well when applied to dictionary and corpus texts, however it works less well when applied to the Internet texts due to the large amount of irrelevant hits that the search engines provide.
The problem is usually remedied by adding more words or phrases to the chosen search word. However, this requires knowledge about which vocabulary is likely to occur in the linguistic metaphors that are searched for. So as to circumvent the problem an analogy-based method for the prediction of the collocation patterns of the source vocabulary was developed.
Thus, the collocation patterns of the chosen source domain vocabulary in the metaphorical expressions used about the target concepts other than anger were studied initially. Then the found patterns were used as a model for predicting analogical patterns in the possible metaphorical anger expressions.
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The word germinate is associated with the source domain of plant. If you search for this word in the Internet with the help of Google, the search engine will retrieve a tremendous amount of irrelevant information.
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It is possible to reduce the amount of search results by adding additional words and phrases to germinate. However, in order to be able to do this, you need to know which words are likely to combine with germinate in the metaphorical expressions you are looking for. The difficulty is that we do not have such a priori knowledge about the collocation patterns of germinate. Nevertheless, such patterns can be predicted.
To do this, I first studied the collocation patterns of germinate in the metaphorical expressions used about the target concepts other than anger. To mention two examples:. In both linguistic metaphors, germinate occurs together with the word idea that refers directly to the target concept of idea. Thus the collocation pattern found here is idea germinate - s , - ed , - ing.
Here an analogy-based prediction can be made: if germinate were to occur in a metaphorical anger expression, it would combine with the target domain word anger or its near-synonyms. Hence, the predicted pattern for the possible anger expressions would be anger germinate - s , - ing , - ed.
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Therefore, the Internet was searched for this pattern and the metaphorical expressions containing such a pattern were elicited without difficulty. Presented below is one linguistic metaphor elicited from the Internet by using the above method. I used the inflected form of germinate when retrieving this metaphor. As is evident, anger and germinate do not occur in each other's immediate neighborhood in the above example.
However, both of them are present in this anger metaphor. Furthermore, the metaphor describes anger in terms of a plant. Therefore, it was placed under its conceptual metaphor anger is a plant. A more detailed description of the method is given in the appendix.
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The metaphorical expressions retrieved with the help of this method contain words and expressions both from their source and the target domains. It should be mentioned that metaphors can be retrieved from data sources by employing the target-domain-oriented approach because some but not all linguistic metaphors contain vocabulary from their metaphorical target domains.
This method was developed by A. Stefanowitsch b and allows the exhaustive description of the metaphorical mappings associated with particular target domain items in a data source. One target domain examined by A. Stefanowitsch was the anger domain and most metaphorical mappings associated with the target domain lexical items like anger have been identified by the author. Therefore, it was decided not to use the target-domain-oriented methodology.
In addition, the method is not readily adaptable to dictionary texts since it is limited to a restricted amount of the target domain lexical items like anger and fury. Dictionaries contain few linguistic metaphors under the entries for the nouns like anger and fury. Furthermore, a set of other methods for metaphor identification have been developed and applied by researchers Pragglejaz Group , Steen , Stefanowitsch a.
Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Summing up, among the existing metaphor identification methods the source-oriented approach has proven to be more useful for the purposes of the current study. Previously, the method was used entirely in corpus-based investigations; in the current study its scope of application has been extended to include dictionary texts. Together with its advantages, the method also has its limits: it is not straightforwardly applicable to Internet texts. The problem has been solved by combining it with the analogy-based pattern prediction approach.
The combined method has proved effective: many metaphorical mappings associated with the target concept of anger have been identified and accounted for. A thorough study of anger metaphors has been carried out by Z. Lakoff and R.
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Gibbs A summary of the conceptual metaphors associated with anger has been given by Z. They are the following:. Apart from this, G. Lakoff and Z. It is beyond doubt that previous cognitive linguistic investigations into anger metaphors contributed a great deal to our understanding of the ways in which people conceptualize anger.
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However, as will be evident from the results of the present study the existing list of anger metaphors is far from exhaustive. Unfortunately, many crucial metaphorical patterns of anger conceptualization have been overlooked in previous research. The present study aims to fill this gap. The animal metaphors for anger identified by the current study are the subcategories of the general metaphor anger is a dangerous animal mentioned above.
Therefore, it would be reasonable to give a brief characterization of this general metaphor before introducing the new metaphors. Thus, the anger is a dangerous animal metaphor describes anger as a sleeping animal that is dangerous to awaken, something that needs to be restrained and something with insatiable appetite. The following correspondences can be distinguished in this metaphor see Lakoff The animal metaphors identified by this study map the source domains of horse and snake onto the target domain of anger.
They are presented below. The anger is a horse metaphor describes anger as a horse that is dangerous if it is not restrained. The harm that the horse may cause can be avoided if it is held under strict control. The following correspondences can be identified in the anger is a horse metaphor. The horse domain is a suitable source domain for anger conceptualization for the following reasons.
We know from our experience that an uncurbed horse is hazardous to ride. It may also trample over gardens and destroy things in its surroundings. Regardless of how much we like horses, we may not want to ride an uncurbed horse. The message conveyed by the anger is a horse metaphor is that in the same way as an unbridled horse may cause harm to the horse owner and to others, anger may cause harm to the angry person and to others if it is not controlled.
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